About the Crop
Name in Indian languages
Guar (Hindi), Goru Chikkudu (Telugu), Kothavarangai (Tamil), Mitke Sang (Konkani), Gawar (Marathi), Gorikayi (Kannada), Guanra Chuinn (Oriya), Borboti (Bengali), Gawar ki Phalli (Rajasthan), Guwar Phali (Gujarati), Guar-di-phalli (Punjab).
Origin and Distribution
Cluster Beans is widely used in various forms, with its pods used as vegetable, grain used as pulse and can also be used as fodder for animals. Cluster Beans is said to be originated from somewhere in Africa but now it is widely cultivated in Southern Asia. It is assumed to be developed from African Species Cyanmopsis Senegalesis
. Cluster bean is now widely grown in India and is a legume, which lives on symbiotic relation with Nitrogen – fixing Bacteria Rhizobium. One of the most important characteristic of Cluster bean is its drought – resistance. The legume has tap root system with the length of 25 – 45 inches, and the pods are of 1.5 -4inches with 5-12 seeds within it. Guar plays a major role as natural manure as it increases the growth of other crops by conservation of soil nutrients.
Area, Production and Productivity
Although the history of cluster bean dates back from Africa, but now it is widely cultivated in India, Pakistan, USA, Sudan, South Africa, Brazil, Malawi, Zaire and Australia. India is the largest producer of Guar with 80% among the world production, followed by Pakistan with 10 – 15%. Its production has considerably increased within the span of past years from merely being a household & fodder need to industrial necessity. It is now widely used in various industries like food, pharmaceuticals and oil. In India Rajasthan is the major producer of Guar followed by Haryana, Gujarat and Punjab. Due to high prices of Guar the production has now extended to other states like Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. In 20012 -2003 Guar production was only 0.2 million metric tons which increased to 2.7 million metric tons in 2013 -14. In 2014 -15, the production was 2415 tons with yield of 567 kg/ha in an area of 4255 ha.