Area, Production and Productivity
As brinjal is a native of India, it is cultivated across many states in large scale and consumed by all most all household. In 2013 – 2014, as per the records of National Horticulture Database, the area under brinjal production was 7,11,000 ha, with production of 135.57 lakh tonnes and productivity of 19.1 mt/ha. The major brinjal producing states in India are Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. In the states of Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal, it is harvested all year round. Out of all states, in 2013-14, West Bengal stands to be the highest brinjal producing state with 23% of total production.
Climate and Seasons
Brinjal mainly is a warm season crop and gives best yield if cultivated in the temperature range of 21 to 27°C. It shows its adversity towards very cold temperature and also is sensitive to severe frost. It is able to give a good yield if also during rainy season. It requires a long growing season with high average day and night temperature and the seed also requires high germination temperature.
It can withstand various types of soil but prefers well drained and fertile soil for maximum productivity. It also gives a good return if grown in sandy and clayey soil and the ideal pH remains to be between 5.5 to 5.6.
It is a violet coloured variety which is resistant to bacterial wilt, gives a high yield and is released from Kerala Agricultural University. The fruits are oval, medium and glossy violet in colour with an average yield of 30 t/ha.
2. Pusa Purple long
It was produced in IARI, New Delhi with many desirable properties like moderate tolerant to shoot borer and little leaf disease. The fruits are nearly 25 to 30 cm long with smooth glossy light purple colour. It gives an average yield of 27.5 t/ha.
3. Pusa Kranti
It is produced by IARI, New Delhi, which is a dwarf variety along with oblong and dark purple coloured brinjal fruit. The average yield is 14 to 16 t/ha and matures in 130 to 150 days.
4. Pusa Barsati
It was developed in PAU Ludhiana, which is a dwarf variety without thorns. The fruits are purple with an average yield of 35.5 t/ha.
It was developed by Kerala Agricultural University, which has bacterial wilt disease resistance and gives high yield. It gives an average yield of 62 t/ha and the fruit is light green in colour and of elongated shape.